Behavior Modification by Raymond G Miltenberger
One characteristic of the extinction process (removing reinforcement in response to an operant behavior) is that once the behavior is no longer reinforced, it often increases briefly in frequency, duration, or intensity before it decreases and ultimately stops.
When a behavior is continuously reinforced, it decreases rapidly once the reinforcement is terminated. On the other hand, when a behavior is intermittently reinforced, it often decreases more gradually once the reinforcement is terminated.
Factors influencing effectiveness of punishment: immediacy, contingency, environmentally-sourced change in impact, internally-sourced change in impact
punishment may produce elicited aggression or other emotional side effects.
the use of punishment may result in escape or avoidance behaviors by the person whose behavior is bein punished.
the use of punishment may be negatively reinforcing for the person using punishment and thus may result in the misuse or overuse of punishment.
When punishment is used, its use is modeled, and observers or people whose behavior is punished may be more likely to use punishment themselves in the future.
punishment is associated with a number of ethical issues and issues of acceptibility.
Discrimination training occurred in the following way. Standing in front of the cage, Schaefer sometimes made verbal statements to the monkey and sometimes said nothing. When Schaefer said, "Poor boy! Don't do that! You'll hurt yourself" and the monkey hit its head, he delivered a food pellet. When he did not provide the verbal stimulus and the monkey hit its head, no food was provided. As a result, stimulus control developed, and the monkey hit its head only when Schaefer made the statements.man starts talking, monkey hits head repeatedly; man stops talking, monkey stops hitting his head. Film-worthy...
Define the target behavior
Determine whether shaping is the most appropriate procedure. If the person already engages in the target behavior at least occasionally, you do not need to use shaping; you can simply use differential reinforcement to increase the frequency of the target behavior
Identify the starting behavior
Choose the shping steps
Choose the reinforcer
Differentially reinforce each successive approximation
Move through the shaping steps at a proper pace
Choose the most appropriate prompting strategy
Get the learner's attention
Present the stimulus
Prompt the correct response
Reinforce the correct behavior
Transfer stimulus control
Continue to reinforce unprompted responses